Thomas, who was one of Christ’s original 12 followers, was given the full name Didymus Judas Thomas.
Saint Thomas the Apostle (also known as Judas Thomas or Didymus, meaning “Twin”) was one of the Twelve Apostles of Jesus who is best known for doubting the resurrection of Jesus and demanding to feel Jesus’ wounds before being convinced (John 20:24-29). This story is the origin of the term “Doubting Thomas.” After seeing Jesus alive, Thomas professed his faith in Jesus, exclaiming, “My Lord and my God!” presenting one of the first clear declarations of Christ’s divinity.
Didymus Judas Thomas in the Categories: Jesus’ Apostles “With Didymus and Thomas both meaning “twin,” the real name here is Judas”. The Acts of Thomas identifies Judas as the Apostle Thomas. The evangelist, John, also identified Thomas as “the twin.”
John 11:16 identifies him as “Thomas, called the Twin.” He is called Judas Thomas (i.e., Judas the Twin) by the Syrians.
THOMAS from Aram. תְּאﯴם, twin, one of the twelve apostles, Matt 10:3; Mark 3:18; Luke 6:15; Acts 1:13). In the fourth gospel, wherever Thomas appears, he is also called “Didymus” (KJV), which is Gr. for “twin” (RSV, John 11:16; 20:24; 21:2). “Thomas,” then, meaning “twin” in Heb., may not be a personal name but an epithet. In Syr.-speaking churches, he was known as Judas Thomas (“Judas the twin”), as is evidenced in the apocryphal Acts of Thomas and in the Syr. MSS where the variants “Thomas” and “Judas Thomas” are used for “Judas (not Iscariot)” in John 14:22 (syrs and syrc respectively). In fact, in the Gr. tr. of the Acts of Thomas, “Judas Thomas” is regarded as the twin of Christ Himself, a view which has been taken seriously by some scholars and is still held as fact by the Mesopotamian church.
The Nag Hammadi copy of the Gospel of Thomas begins: “These are the secret sayings that the living Jesus spoke and Didymus, Judas Thomas, recorded.” Early Syrian traditions also relate the apostle’s full name as Judas Thomas. Some have seen in the Acts of Thomas (written in east Syria in the early 3rd century, or perhaps as early as the first half of the 2nd century) an identification of Thomas with the apostle Judas, Son of James, better known in English as Jude. However, the first sentence of the Acts follows the Gospels and the Acts of the Apostles in distinguishing the apostle Thomas and the apostle Judas son of James. Others, such as James Tabor, identify him as Jude, the brother of Jesus mentioned by Mark. In the Book of Thomas the Contender, part of the Nag Hammadi library, he is alleged to be a twin to Jesus: “Now, since it has been said that you are my twin and true companion, examine yourself…”
A “Doubting Thomas” is a skeptic who refuses to believe without direct personal experience — a reference to the Gospel of John’s depiction of the Apostle Thomas, who, in John’s account, refused to believe the resurrected Jesus had appeared to the ten other apostles until he could see and feel Jesus’ crucifixion wounds.
The Doctrine of the Apostles, as reflected in Cureton 1864, pp. 32–34, attests that Thomas had written Christian doctrine from India. India and all its own countries, and those bordering on it, even to the farther sea, received the Apostle’s hand of Priesthood from Judas Thomas, who was Guide and Ruler in the Church which he built and ministered there”. In what follows “the whole Persia of the Assyrians and Medes, and of the countries round about Babylon… even to the borders of the Indians and even to the country of Gog and Magog” are said to have received the Apostles’ Hand of Priesthood from Aggaeus the disciple of Addaeus.
Quoting Origen, Eusebius of Caesarea says: “When the holy Apostles and disciples of our Saviour were scattered over all the world, Thomas, so the tradition has it, obtained as his portion Parthia…” “Judas, who is also called Thomas,” has a role in the legend of king Abgar of Edessa (Urfa), for having sent Thaddaeus to preach in Edessa after the Ascension,
Mk 6:3//Mt 13:55-56 Is not this the carpenter, the son of Mary and brother of James and Joses and Judas and Simon, and are not his sisters here with us?’ And they took offence at him.
Jesus had a disciple, one of the Twelve named Jude or Judas, other than the traitor Judas Iscariot.